Templates II: Electric Boogaloo

Last time on this adventure writing the Template Toolkit language in Raku, we’d just created a small test suite that encompasses some of the problems we’re going to encounter. It’s no use without a grammar and a bunch of other parts, but it does give us an idea of what it’s going to look like.

use Test;
use Template::Toolkit::Grammar;
use Template::Toolkit::Actions;

# ... similar lines above this
is-deeply the-tree( 'xx[% name %]x' ),
    [ 'a', 'a', Directive.new( :content( 'name' ) ), 'a', ];
# ... and similar lines below this.

The list here is what we’re going to return to render(), and I’d love to make that as simple as it can be without being too simple. Let’s focus for the moment just on one bit of the test suite here, the array I’m getting back.

[ 'a', 'a', Directive.new( :content( 'name' ) ), 'a', ];

If these elements were all strings, then all render() would have to do is join the strings together, simples!

method render( Str $text ) returns Str {
  my @terms = # magic to turn text into array of terms
  @terms.join: '';

Let’s create the ‘Directive’ class and see what happens, though.

class Directive { has $.content }

my @terms = 'a', 'a', Directive.new( :content( 'name' ) ), 'a';
say @terms.join: '';
# aaDirective<94444485232315>a

Whoops, that’s not what we want. Not bad exactly, but not what we want, either. Well, not to fear. Remember that in Template Toolkit, directives will always return a string. It may be an empty string, but they’ll always return some kind of string.

As a side note, this may not always be true – some directives will even tell the renderer to stop parsing entirely. But it’s a pretty solid starting assumption. For instance, we could say that encountering the STOP directive just makes all future directives return ”.

Of course, I’m harping on the term ‘string’ for a reason. Internally, everything is an object, and every object has a method that returns a readable value. Our Directive class didn’t specify one, so we get the default that returns ‘$name<$address>’.

So, let’s supply our own method.

class Directive { has $.content; method Str { $.content } }

my @terms = 'a', 'a', Directive.new( :content( 'name' ) ), 'a';
say @terms.join: ', ';
# a, a, name, a

There. If we supply a .Str method we can make Directives do what we want. INCLUDE directives would open the file, slurp the contents and return them. Argument directives would take their argument name, look up the value, and return that. Or, more likely, would have a context object passed that does the lookup for them.

Where do we go from here?

Next time we’ll convince Grammars and Actions to work together, making processing a template as simple as:

parse-template( $text ).join( '' );

Next in this series on writing your own template language using Raku, you should be able to define your own Template Toolkit directives and have them return the pre-processed text. We’ll add support for context and the ability to do simple ‘[% name %]’ tags, and maybe explore how to change ‘[%’..’%]’ tags on-the-fly.

Thank you again, dear reader, for your interest, comments and critiques.